Friday, December 18, 2015

CJ(#49) A Witness

Very few primary documents exist during this period of Cadwallader's (JO-1) history as governor of the Bahama Islands.  One document can be found in the records of South Carolina.  Cover sheet shown:

It is dated "5 Oct. 1691", and is the will of a Joseph Barker (BARK-1).  It reads:

"Joseph Barker (BARK-1), Island of New Providence, merchant, bound on a voyage to New England.  Wife: Hannah (BARK-2), all estate.  Exors: wife, with assistance of Capt. Richard Holloway.(HOL-1)  Wit: Cadwallader Jones (JO-1), Gilbert Ashly (AS-1), Thomas Bulkley (BUL-1).
D: 5 Oct. 1691."

It was common practice that an individual traveling by ship made his will. [Makes some statement about the safety issues.]  Here, a merchant of the "New Providence" [Bahama Island : the terms used varied depending on who was writing the documents and who they believed actually had the rights to these islands.]  Was planning a trip to "New England". [Most likely the Boston area.]  Perhaps he was trying to establish trade with this area.  This document shows that our Cadwallader (JO-1) and Thomas Bulkley (BUL-1) were both serving together as a witness of this will dated Oct. 1691.  It also shows that there were "merchants" actively involved in trade along the colonial coast as far north as "New England".

Tuesday, November 24, 2015

CJ (#48) Setting The Stage

On the 19th of June 1690, Cadwallader Jones (JO-1) arrives to the Bahama Islands as the new Governor.  The last three post has presented the key factors that were to impact the lives of those who begin writing the pages of history.  The stage is set for a history that had become the accepted record of this story, but it is not the whole record.  It begins this summer of 1690 with the stage set as follows:

Thomas Bulkley (BUL-1) was a merchant under a Protestant plan to settle a group called the "Eleutherian Adventurers" at "Eleuthera". [Greek word meaning freedom]  Our Cadwallader (JO-1) was Catholic, under the authority of a group of "Proprietors" who claimed the Bahamas as part of their "Carolina".  Monarchist -vs- Republican; Catholic -vs- Protestant; with the only common ground being their view of social status.  Setting the stage for the next story in the life of Cadwallader Jones (JO-1).

Saturday, October 31, 2015

CJ (#47) Cultural Dynamics (3) Social Class

Social class becomes the third distinct category that placed folks into separate groups.  During the time of our Cadwallader (JO-1), this category was an important aspect of their very existence.  Viewed in the context of previous post, the following is shown:

"Yeomen" verses "Gentlemen"; or those who work with their hands, and those who do no manual labor, defines this segmented society.  Mutual exclusive would be these categories, so that a genealogist could separate one individual from another by knowing which of these categories an ancestor resided.

The broad structure of this "social class" is shown in the following drawing:

Peerage to the poor organized the social groups accepted during the time of our Cadwallader Jones (JO-1).  "Catholic", "Monarchist", "Gentry", would classify our Cadwallader.  The rest of the Bahama accounts reflect the writings of another, "Protestant", "Republican", "Gentry" named Thomas Bulkley (BUL-1). [also spelled Bulkeley]  Our story continues!

A good reference for this is "The World We Have Lost, England Before the Industrial Age", by Peter Laslett, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1965.

Thursday, October 1, 2015

CJ (#46) Cultural Dynamics (2) Government

The second item that separated individuals into different groups was "government".  The form or type of government that one believed to be the best to give your allegiance.  At this point in the life of our Cadwallader Jones (JO-1) it was the "Monarchists" verses the "Republicans".

A monarchy was the undivided rule or absolute sovereignty by a single person.  This had been the standard form of government throughout Europe.  It was called by most the "Divine Right of Kings".  A person who supported and followed this structure was called a "Monarchist".

Those individuals who felt that a government in which supreme power resides in a body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by elected representatives is called a "Republic".  These representatives were responsible to them (the citizens), and were governing according to  recognized law. 

These two distinct forms placed an individual into different camps.  Just like you could be a "Catholic" or "Protestant" (last post), but not both at the same time, you could be a "Monarchist" or "Republican".  This would form two different groups.

At this point in 1690, our Cadwallader Jones (JO-1) was a "Monarchist".  The majority of folks who occupied the Bahamas were "Republicans" and "Protestants".  A source of conflict for all yet to come.

More to come.

Tuesday, September 8, 2015

CJ (#45) Cultural Dynamics (1) Religion

Our ancestors lived in a historical context that was uniquely their own.  This context often contained certain dynamics that would influence the thoughts, speech, and action of the individual.  For our Cadwallader Jones (JO-1), this would involve a number of influences that are important to recognize in this period ["The Glorious Revolution" 1688-1689].

Cultural dynamics I will call them, since they were the major items that influenced the behavior of those folks involved.  They are: 1) Religion, 2) Government, and 3) Social Class.  These dynamics were the most important influences active at this point in history.  Individuals and families were separated from one another along these lines.  To understand the life and times of Cadwallader Jones (JO-1) [especially the record following his time as Governor of the Bahamas], it will be important to grasp these cultural dynamics.  These items will be presented individually in the next few posts.

Let's begin with "Religion".

One or the other, you could not be both at the same time.  Here, a "Catholic" is defined as a person who belongs (or believes) in the Catholic Church.  A "Protestant" is defined as a person who denied the universal authority of the Pope, and believed certain "Reformational  principles".

The figure above shows a dividing line between the two belief systems.  If you claimed to be "Catholic" you could not be a "Protestant" at the same time.  This dynamic would then place the individual into "one or the other" categories.

Our Cadwallader Jones (JO-1) was Catholic.  Many who had settled the Islands were Protestants.  These Protestants called the Islands "Eleutheria" [meaning freedom] and intended this settlement to be a republic.

For references see:

Our First Revolution, by Michael Barone, Crown Publishers, N.Y., 2007.

The Story of The Bahamas, by Paul Albury, Macmillan Education Ltd, London, 1975.

Saturday, August 8, 2015

CJ (#44) Arrives Bahama Islands

It was on the 19th of June, 1690 that our Cadwallader Jones (JO-1) arrives to the Bahamas.  It took some 2 years from the time he left Virginia, his travel to England, his appointment as Governor, and his arrival to the Bahamas.  By way of review:

          1) his last record in (Old) Rappahannock Co., VA dated 8 Sept. 1687 - see post CJ (#39) dated Monday, Feb. 23, 2015.

          2) his appointment as Governor of the Bahama Islands - dated 14 Nov. 1689 - see post (CJ #40) dated Thursday, 23, April, 2015

          3) his arrival as Governor of the Bahama Islands, dated 19 June, 1690 - this post!

I have been unable to discover any records pertaining to this two year period.  I would suspect that initially that our Cadwallader (JO-1) first went to Maryland to associated family and business partners to arrange his travel to England. [Average time of passage around 4 months.]  He would have most likely traveled to London where the family had business arrangements [Eastcheap market area], and was the political center of the colonial world.  The Berkeley connections to the Proprietors of the Carolina settlements [Bahama Island now part.] would have served as a help.  At any rate, it was after this date [19 June 1690] that the life of our Cadwallader Jones (JO-1) takes on a whole new story.

Wednesday, July 15, 2015

CJ (#43) Proprietor

A proprietor is defined as one who has the legal right or exclusive title to anything.  It is one who holds the title to a thing in his own right.  It was a common feature in English land law that for every piece of land there must be a proprietor who exercised control over it.  The land across the great pond certainly offered the upper classes [in England] a way to generate income from large estates.

The "Crown" had the sole power to make original land grants in the new lands.  This was the case for the new lands called Carolina.  A group of men became the "proprietors" of the area which included the Bahamas.  There goal was to make money.  These men were:

                                 1) George Duke of Albemarle, Master of his Majesty's Horse
                                 2) Edward Earl of Clarendon
                                 3) William Earl of Craven
                                 4) John Lord Berkley
                                 5) Anthony Lord Ashley Chancellor of the Exchequer
                                 6) Sir George Carteret, Vice Chamberlain of his Majesty's Household
                                 7) Sir William Berkley, Knight
                                 8) Sir Peter Colleton, Baronet

        "....the true and absolute lords proprietors of all the province of Carolina." [May 1, 1668]

The "Instructions for Granting Lands in Carolina November 21, 1682" can be found in Foundations of Colonial America, A Documentary History, Vol. III - Part 2 : Southern Colonies, Edited by W. Keith Kavenagh, pp. 2468 - 2475.  It was under these instructions that Cadwallader Jones (JO-1) was appointed governor of the Bahamas by this group of proprietors on November 14, 1689.

Thursday, June 11, 2015

CJ (#42) More Instructions 1689

On the same page of the "Calender of State Papers - Colonial Series 13, American and West Indies 1689 - 1692, p. 179 (#555) continues additional instructions to our Cadwallader:

Dated "Nov 14"

     "Instructions to Governor Cadwallader Jones.  The Proprietor's deputies are always to be of the Council.  An Assembly of twenty elected members is to be called.  The council will be of six freeholders elected by Parliament and six deputies of the Proprietors.  All Councillors are to swear allegiance to the King.  Signed.  Craven, Ashley, Carteret. P. Colleton [Col. Entry Bk Vol XXII - p. 152]

Instructions for the political structure of the Bahama Islands under the "Proprietor's Government" November, 1689. 

Friday, May 8, 2015

CJ (#41) Instructions 1689

On the same page of the Calender of State Papers - Colonial Series 13, American and West Indies 1689 - 1692 [p. 179] is the following instructions to "Governor Cadwallader Jones":

"Instructions to Governor Cadwallader Jones of the Bahama Islands.  As to land-grants, the rights of cutting certain woods and searching for wrecks and for ambergris. Signed. Craver, Askley, Carteret, P. Colleton."

[ Col. Entry BK. Vol. XXII, pp. 151, 152 ]

This gives the issues important to the folks in charge.  There are 1) "land-grants", 2) "the rights of cutting certain woods", 3) "the searching for wrecks, and 4) "ambergris".  [ ambergris = a waxy substance found floating in or on the shores of tropical waters, believed to originate in the intestines of the sperm whale, and used in perfumery as a fixative ]  Wow...what a list of priorities!

Thursday, April 23, 2015

CJ (#40) Appointed Governor 1689

Between the fall of 1687 and Nov.14, 1689, Cadwallader Jones (JO-1) was attempting to rearrange his state of affairs.  In the "Calander of State Papers - Colonial Series 13, American and West Indies 1689 - 1692, p.179" is found the following:

"Nov. 14, (544) 1689

      Commission of the Proprietors to Cadwallader Jones (JO-1) to be Governor of the Bahama Islands.
            Signed. Craven, Ashley Carteret, P. Colleton [Col. Entry BK. Vol. XXII, pp 151, 152]"

Here starts the story of our Cadwallader (JO-1) involvement with the Bahama Islands.  He was most likely aware of the recent Spanish treasure recovered off the coast of the Bahamas.  Also, the Berkeley family was directly involved with colony of Carolina, and Cadwallader (JO-1) had a connection here as well. [see last several post titled "Connectors".]   At any rate, Cadwallader (JO-1) was appointed "Governor" under the direction of the "Proprietors" by the end of 1689.

Saturday, April 11, 2015

Connectors (3)

Various dynamics came into play at this point in Cadwallader's (JO-1) life.  Some of these factors included economic, legal, social, political, and religious dynamics. 

In 1687, the economic [huge debt], and legal [multiple suites] issues had perhaps the greatest role.

The social role had its own impact with the connection of "Capt. John Smith" [Francis Dade (DAD-1) to the relationships that our Cadwallader (JO-1) had with this family. [Yet to be told.] 

The political dynamics involved the relationship to the "court party" [strong support for the Monarchy] and the "peoples party" [Parliament], and their continual fight over control of the government.  Charles II, and James II had their role to play in the historical context of the day.  The "Glorious Revolution" was to happen at this point in the life of our Cadwallader (JO-1).  [William and Mary to come front stage.]  It was Charles II who rewarded the folks who supported him with the lands of Carolina.

Religious dynamics were ongoing between the Catholics [James II] and Protestants [William and Mary] of the world.  The most recent events in the Bahamas brought these issues together.

Putting together the various factors places a historical context around the life of our Cadwallader Jones (JO-1).  Understanding these dynamics helps place the story of the Bahamas [starting 1689] in a broader light then the writers of the earliest history books record.

Wednesday, March 25, 2015

Connectors (2)

The Bahamas have their own unique history.  One of the earliest maps to show the geographic location and the position in the Caribbean is shown next.

First published in 1566 by Zaltieri, the island can be seen just off the coast of "LA FLORIDA".   From here, it heads a stream of islands forming a chain southeast that filters all ships sailing from the "CLOFO MEXICANO" [Gulf of Mexico]  The Atlantic current would bring the Spanish treasure ships along the coast of Florida through this group of islands.

In the book by Michael Cration called "A History of the Bahamas" he discusses the recovery of a sunken Spanish treasure ship in 1687. [Picture of book cover shown next.]

On page 76 he outlines how a "Captain John Smith" organized an operation supported by the second Duke of Albermarle.  They were the first to use a water-cask called "diving-bell".  This recovery caused "gold fever" among those in England and in the colonies, but especially among the Proprietors of the Carolina grant.

Now this "Captain John Smith" was an alias for a Francis Dade (DAD-1) who's family had direct connection  to our Cadwallader Jones (JO-1).  This connection proves to be important as the story continues.  You might imagine how Cadwallader (JO-1) would jump at the chance to get involved in the "gold fever".  Much, much, more to come!

Map enlarged from: "The Mapping of North America, Three centuries of map-making 1500 - 1860", by John Goss. [p.32]  Published by The Wellfleet Press, NJ, 1990.

The book by Michael Craton was first published 1962 by San Salvador Press, Ont. Canada.  Editions were reprinted in 1968, 1986, and 1992.

Monday, March 9, 2015

Connectors (1)

Our ancestors lived within a historical context.  This context will contain a variety of circumstances that will often determine actions and/or behavior.  Trying to understand these factors will many times help solve unanswered questions about the family tree.  There may be individual, family, social, political, and economic concerns that often have a role in the lives of our folks from the past.  The next several post will present "connectors" that will help bridge the period of Cadwallader Jones (JO-1).  Between the last recorded event of his life in Virginia (1687), to the first recorded event in his new life of action (1689), the historical context plays a major role.

First, Sir William Berkeley had been governor of Virginia (on and off) since 1642.    For many generations, the Berkeley family had been strong supporters of the English monarchy.  When Charles II was reinstated in 1660, the Berkeley family was rewarded with the new proprietary colony called "Carolina".  Our Cadwallader Jones (JO-1) had been a supporter during the difficult time that has come to be called "Bacon's Rebellion" 1676.

During this period, a "proprietor" was one who had the legal right or exclusive title to anything.  The grantees of Maryland and Pennsylvania were called the "proprietaries" of these colonial provinces.  The proprietors of Carolina included several additional folks besides two Berkeley.  One of these individuals was Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle (1653 - 1688).  In a reference titled: "The Diary of John Evelyn" [cover shown below], it is recorded on June 12th, 1687 the following:

 "There was about this time brought into the Downes, a Vast treasure which after 45 years being sunk in a Spanish Galioon, which perish'd somewhere neere Hispaniola or B[a]hama Illands coming home; was now weighed up, by certain Gentlement and others, who were at the Charge of Diver etc: to the suddaine enriching of them, beyond all expectation: The Duke of Albemarles share came (tis believed) to 50000, and some private Gent: who adventured but 100 pounds and little more, to ten, 18000 pounds, and proportionably; his Majesties tenth to 10000 pounds..." (p.354)

The "B[a]hama Illands" were under the colony of Carolina, and their proprietors.  It was this group of folks who were to appoint our Cadwallader Jones (JO-1) governor of the Bahama Islands in 1689.

Monday, February 23, 2015

CJ (#39) A Final Note

The name Cadwallader Jones (JO-1) appears the last time in the records of (Old) Rappahannock County court order books on the 8th of September 1687.  He had already left for England, and a suite involving him was documented. It reads:

"Judgmt. is granted Jno. Battaile (BAT-1) against Wm. Browne (BRO-1) for Nine hundred pounds of tobb & caske being the ballance of a Bill by order of the Deft. taken in from Colnll. Cadwaldr. Jones (JO-1) for 1343 lb. tobb. to be pd with cost of suit als exe."

The dust was just beginning to settle in the records of Cadwallader Jones (JO-1) for (Old) Rappahannock County.  There are many parallel events happening at this time in history which have impact on the life of our Cadwallader (JO-1).  A complex network of items come into play at this time.  More to be said.

Thursday, February 5, 2015

CJ (#38) A Silver Cup

The (Old) Rappahannock County Order book of 1685 - 1687 for the 3rd day of August 1687 (p.89) continues:

"Whereas by virture of an Attachmt. issued & signed by his Excellecny directed to the High Sheriff of Rappa: County against the Estate of Colnll. Cadwalider Jones (JO-1) at the Suit of the Honble. Nicholas Spencer Esqr. (SPE-1) the Sheriff made seizure of goods belonging to the sd Colnll. Jones (JO-1) in the hands of Robert Taliaferro (TA-1) amt: in value to Eighteen hundred pounds of tobb & cask and a Silver Cup and the sd Taliaferro (TA-1) refusing to render up the sd goods & Cup, the Court upon representation thereof have ordered that the sd Robert Taliaferro (TA-1) forthwith deliver the sd goods & Silver Cup to the Sheriff to the use of the sd Nicholas Spencer, Esq. (SPE-1)"
  "Court adjourned till after Diner"

Not wanting to give up the "goods", including the Silver Cup, which had been placed in the hands of Robert Taliaferro (TA-1), the court orders old Robert to give the goods to the said Nicholas Spencer.  Our Cadwallader would have left the county by now, and was on his way to England.  You will have to read back through the post to connect how these goods were connected to Robert Taliaferro (TA-1) and our Cadwallader Jones (JO-1).

Saturday, January 17, 2015

CJ (#37) The Condiconll

It was the third of August 1687 that an additional judgement is recorded in (Old) Rappahannock County Order Book 1685 - 1687.  On page 88 of the documents as recorded by Ruth and Sam Sparacio it reads:

"The Condiconll: Order granted last June Court to Jno. Taliaferro (TA-4) as assignee of Colnll. Cadwaldr: Jones (JO-1) against Abraham Hobbs (HOB-1) is by this Court confirmed Deft. not appearing to make plea against the same to be pd wth cost of suit als exe."

It would seem that our Cadwallader (JO-1) had appointed John Taliaferro (TA-4) to represent him in the court cases still pending.  This John Taliaferro (TA-4) was a key player in the life events of Cadwallader Jones (JO-1).  Pieces of the puzzle they are.