Saturday, March 4, 2017

CJ (#59) A Second Letter 1692 (4)

The second issue:

"II. He takes upon him to Dispence with the Lords Proprietors Instructions, contain'd in the 4th. Paragraph thereof, wherein he is required to Summon a General Assembly, or Parliament, which he did not, (upon a false pretence.) but instead of a Parliament, he constituted a Council consisting of himself, three Deputies, and four others, Chosen by the People, as Representatives of them; with whose Advise and Consent he fell to making of Laws, to be of equall Authority and Force, with Acts of a General Assembly, till the 25th of December following, which was near six Months from the time of his Arrival."

The British Civil War had much to do with the form of government.  "Court party" -vs- "Patriot party", was the major conflict, with Parliament establishing itself 1646 - 1660.  The swing back to Monarchy 1660 was to change dramatically with the arrival of James II as a Catholic.  The Puritan majority in Parliament had established Protestant Rule only from the Throne of England, leaving to the exile of James II, 25 December 1688.  It was this very conflict that was active during the period that Cadwallader (JO-1) monarchist faced Thomas Bulkley (BUL-1) Puritan.

A good reference is : English Politics In Early Virginia History, by Alexander Brown, The Riverside Press, Cambridge, 1901.

Thursday, February 23, 2017

CJ (#59) A Second Letter 1692 (3)

The second letter continues beginning "...his many Irregularities in Government" :

"I.  He presumed to Refuse taking the Oaths of Alleglance and Supremacy to their Majesties King William and Queen Mary, having (as may without breath of Charity be supposed some hopes of a Change of the seen in England, by King James's Remounting the Throne again."

As discussed in previous post, this historic period placed many against one another based upon their religious beliefs.  Cadwallader (JO-1) was appointed governor under James II [Catholic] 1689, just as the religious turmoil in England was coming to a head.   James II was to flee to France, December 1689, and the refusal to take the Oath was based upon the hope that James II would return to the thrown.

A large number of events were occurring in Scotland, Ireland, and France which have been discussed in "Our First Revolution, The Remarkable British Upheaval That Inspired America's Founding Fathers", by Michael Barone, Crown Publishers, NY., 2007]  It is called "The Glorious Revolution" in English history books.  So, from the very beginning of Cadwallader's (JO-1) arrival to the Bahamas, the Puritan settlement [under Thomas Bulkley (BUL-1)] was in direct conflict with the political and religious system that had appointed Cadwallader (JO-1) as governor.

This figure has been discussed before in several prior posts trying to show the opposing belief systems.

The list will be continued.

Friday, February 3, 2017

CJ (# 59) A Second Letter 1692 (2)

The second letter continues:

"Sir, As we said before, the case of our Complaints is not Personal Affronts and Injuries (which have been many and great) but for them we would not (at least by letter) have troubled your Honour with our Complaints, but of as general a Nature as before said, viz The grand Charge we have against him, is great in itself, and great in respect of the many great ones contain'd in it : The general is that from the first of his coming hither, He hath managed a wicked design to set up Arbitrary and Tyrannical Government, not bounded not regulated by Laws, but such as would be the Dictates of his own will, for serving the Corrupt Interests and Lusts of himself, and his Lewd and Beggerly Favourites ; who were designed to Repair their decay'd Fortunes (became so by their own Vicious and Extravagant Courses)  by Subjecting the People in their Bodies and Parts to their absolute Dominion and Avarice. The withstanding of which Designs, first in a regular and Parliamentary way, and when that proved ineffectual, we were constrained (being at so great a distance from the Lords Proprietors) to the Extraordinary means to bring him to some better terms, which were Reasonable, Just, and Mild : To which, tho he then Conceded, and made many fair promises, yet in a little time (after the Muzle was was off ) he began to Act like a Beast of Prey again ; and so hath continued to do, to this present time..."

Here beings a long list of complaints continued in this letter.   I will begin this list next post.  Hum...can't wait.

Tuesday, January 17, 2017

CJ (#59) A Second Letter 1692 (1)

"A Second Letter to the said Collonel Phillip Ludwell, Governour of Carolina, being a Replication to his Answer to the first, to him Written, by the said Ashley (AS-1), Clasen (CLA-1), and Bukeley (BUL-1)."

"Right Honourable,

The 24th of the last Month (by Mr. Ireland (IR-1) we received yours, Dated the 27th of October, where in your Honour abounds in Expressions of Kindness and Condescention to us; and a compassionate Resentment of our Divisions and Discords, and the evil tendency thereof ; As also declaring your readiness to Engage your self to Promote and Accomplish a Reconciliation between us, in hopes whereof you express your self willing to undertake a Voyage hither ; for which Favours we want words to express our Humble gratitude.  By yours we are inform'd, your Honour hath received ours of the 16th of July, in which (as your Honour speaks) some things to a stranger may seem too passonate : But truly Sir, they do but seem so, for to any other then a stranger, we might say as David to his brother Eleabs is there not a Cause, and that not Personal or Private, but Publick and General, where is no less than the whole Interest of the Lords Proprietors, safety, and Tranquility of the people Inhabiting these their Lordships Territories is involved.  Your Honour saith that you have known our Governour several Years, and that he hath always past for a person of a Generous and good Nature, if he did, it was only as Counterfit Come, till it is discovered; or else he is strangely Debased ; For now, there does not appear in him one mark of true Generosity, nor so much as the Reliques thereof, but a Degenerate Ignoble Spirit, almost daily discover it self, in Speeches and Action Similar; whereof numerous Instances might be given.  You say you have received Complaints from his also, but neither he nor we have given the particulars of each other's Grievances."

Just the beginning it is...a very long letter post.

Saturday, October 22, 2016

CJ (#58) An Answer 1692 (2)

The letter from Phillip Ludwell (LU-1) continues:

"My Advice is, That you meet alltogether, and draw up an Impartial account of all matters, viz The Grievances the Countrey (or you for them) complain of on the one side; and what the Governour has to complain of, on the other side; and that either party do communicate to the other side, before you send it away.  I have also, now made the same proposal to the Governour, who (I suppose) will not refuse it, if he do, I shall have no very opinion of his Cause, or Judgment.

If you think fit to do this, and send it me as soon as possibly you can; I have very great confidence I should Even the matters of Variance that are between you, or leave one side or tother without excuse.  However, If I should not be so happy in the Mediation at the first dash, it would be no great prejudice or loss of time to either, since the affairs of the Countrey (I mean as to the defence of it against a Common Enemy, or Judicial proceedings on Civil Actions between Man and Man) may go on.

But as to any manner of Process for any Heats or Piques, which are (by either part) taken to be Misdemeanours in the Government, I do Earnestly Exhort, and require you all, that it do cease, till the whole have been enquired into.

Whereupon, if an Accomodation be Effected, I shall think my self very happy, in having done the Lords, and the Country so good a Service.  I hope you will all set heartily about it: For I hope you all take the Authority of him, to be Infallible, that tells you, A House divided within it self cannot stand.

I shall trouble you no further at present, but asure you of my readiness to do you Service, being

Gentlemen, your Affectionate Fried and Humble Servant, Phill Ludwell (LU-1)  South Carolina, Octob. 27th 1692."

A postscript is attached as written:

"The Governour speaks of an Act of Indemnity; which he refused to Pass; pray let me have a true Copy of it.  I have also written to the Governour for a Copy, but desire it from you also.  If nothing will do, but my coming, that shall not be wanting, as soon as ever I can settle matters here, which I hope are now in a fair way;  But I hope you will all see your Interest so well, that there will be no need of my coming; unless it be to Rejoyce with you, for your good Fortune.

Pray send me the true grounds of the Differences between the governour, and You.  Yours as above. P.L."


Monday, September 12, 2016

CJ (#58) An Answer 1692 (1)

The following is a copy [as best as I can read it.] of the letter sent to "Providence" from Phillip Ludwell (LU-1).  It is dated October 17th, 1692 and sent from "South Caroline".

"These, For Gilbert Ashley (AS-1), Bowen Clasen (CLA-1), and Thomas Bulkley (BUL-1) Esqs ; Or to any one of them, at Providence.

 Had I had any oppertunity, I had long ere this returned you an Answer to yours of the 16th of July, received from Mr. Clark : I am very sorry both for the Lords, and your own sakes, to find such great Discord between you and your Governour; and should be extreamly glad if I could contribute any thing to a Reconciliation.

In order to which, I would very willingly have taken a Journey to you if my Assiments would have permitted and, having so Rasicnal Persons as I have reason to believe you have among you to treat withal should not have dispaired of a good Effect.

I have considered the the contents of your Letter, which tho in some part a Stranger, may seem something too Passionate; yet I fear in general there is too much reason to believe the Complaints are not wholy without cause.

I have known your Governour several years, and altho perhaps he may be something a stranger to those Polliticks, which are requisite for the Well and Peaceable Ordering of a Government; yet he being of a generous and good Name (which he has always past for) I think it a little Strange that he should be so utterly Uncouncalable, by those of more acquaintance with the place, and joyed in power with him.

At the same time I received yours, I received a Letter also from him, near the same date, with complaints on his side; but neither he, nor you, gave me the particulars of eithers Grievances.  I have discoursed with Dr. Clark, who I believe has given me what Light he can, which yet cannot lead me to find out clearly where the Shooe pincheth, but by what I guess if it were possible for me to come to you, with any manner of Security to their Lordships Affairs here at this present, I should not much doubt to settle all to your satisfaction; but the trouble I have met with here, will not yet admit my least absence.  I'le asure you my desires are great to it, but since I cannot do as I would, if your please to follow my Advice, I am in hopes by Gods Assistance, may do you some Service." [more to come]

The length of this letter leads me to give it in two parts.  It has been difficult to make out all the words, and the use of "f" for the letter "s" was in the original letter.

Tuesday, August 2, 2016

CJ (#57) A Letter July 1692

The packet that was sent by Thomas Bulkley (BUL-1) as shown in the last post, contained a number of items that were intend to give additional information regarding the charges made by him.  The following is a copy of the first letter written July 16th 1692.

"A LETTER from Gilbert Ashley (AS-1), and Bowen Clasen (CLA-1), Esqs. (being Deputies to two of the Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina, and the Bahama Islands), and Thomas Bulkley (BUL-1), Secretary of the last Named Province.  Superscribed, To the Honourable Collonel Phillip Ludwell (LU-1), Governour of Carolina."

"Honourable Sir,
      Wee the subscribers (by Mr. William Baker (BA-2), owner of a Bark which arriv'd here, from South Carolina the 13th instant) having received some general but very imperfect Information of your being come thither with Authority from the Lords Proprietors, of that, and this Colony, either to be Chief Governour, or at least to inquire into the conduct of Publick Affairs in both, and to Reform what your Wisdom shall discern to need; do with with all Humble Deference, Congratulate your safe Arrival there, and earnestly with for the same here: Wee (two less considerable) standing in as much need of your Authority, and Wisdom to rectifie our most disorderly Governor.  We think not fit to Anticipate you with our Complaints, and the Causes thereof, which are many, and great; whereby a hopeful Settlement of these their Lordships Dominions, [capable of great Improvements] is not only much retarded, but almost ruin'd.  We (according to the duty of our several Places and Bratrons) have used our best Endeavours that such Laws and Ordinances might be Made, and Executed, as in our Judgments tended most to the Honour and Profit of our Masters, and general good of the Government and People : But to our grief, we find all Laws for the Suppression of Vice, and Incouragement of Virtue and Industry, either Opposed in the making, or Ennervated in the Execution, the Lords Interest wholy disregarded : and those who are most Zealous to promote it, Discoutenanced, the publick Treasure Secertiy and unaccountable consum'd all Sober, Virtuous, and Industrious Person Abbor'd ; Privateers and Pirates, and such like Dissolute and Debauch'd persons Pavoared, and thereby made Impudently Insolent.  In this deplorable case we are wholy destitute of a remedy, within our selves; for General Assemblies above all things are hated, and dreaded, and those who Petition for their Calling, and Sitting, termed Traitors; and when Summon'd, the good itentions defeated by packed Elections, of the most unfit, and unworthy Persons to be Members.  And if the will not rully confound all Designs, and Endeavors for publick good, then self-conceited King Solomon, or (more properly) King Bramble, will be sure to effect it, by his refusdal to pass Such Bills into Acts.  But the Soveraign Balsom of your Power and Prudence, (which we have a great Character of ) if seasonably applyed, may heal our Death Threatning Distempers.  To you therfore, as our Extraordinary Political Physition, we look and call for a speedy visit; the hopes whereof, is a Reviving Cordial to your Afficted Patients, who will be (as oppertunity effects) Your Faithful and Humble Servants,

                   New Providence, July the 16th 1692                               Gilbert Ashley (AS-1)
                                                                                                            Bown Clasen (CLA-1)
                                                                                                            Thomas Bulkey (BUL-1)"

The appointment and instructions to Colonel Philip Ludwell (LU-1) as Governor of Carolina was given November 1691. [W.L. Saunders, ed. The Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. I, pp. 373-384 ]  This letter would have been written very early to the arrival of Governor Ludwell (LU-1).  Remember that Cadwallader Jones (JO-1) was appointed Governor the Bahama Islands November 14, 1689.  This letter would have been written almost four years after his arrival to the Islands.