Wednesday, August 2, 2017

CJ (#59) A Second Letter 1692 (10)

The accusations continue.  The posts numbered #59 are still from the same correspondence.

"And in destributing the Lords Lands, he gives greater Portions by far to Idle Drones, who make no improvement, than the Lords allow to the most Industrious Planters; and at the same time denyeth many Laborious men any Land that lies convenient; whereby divers who came hither on purpose to Settle and Plant, have been so discouraged, as to depart again with Damage, and others who have staid long in hopes, are yet destitute: And he suffers Punch Houses to be kept in such an unlimited manner, that they do Devour the Fruits of the peoples labours, and thereby, and the idle expence of their time the Growth and Flourishing of the Settlement is greatly Obstructed.  And he so much connives at, or rather incourageth Profaness and Debauchery, that we may fear God's wrath, to break forth against us, in some Tremendous Judgment He himself keeping a Young Wench, which he calls his Miss, whose Father was a Notorious Pirate, and her Mother is a Punch House Keeper, his Disciple Lightwood (who came with him) hath kept a mans Wife (who made him his Attorney here) as his own, and by her he hath had three Bastards, two whereof were Abortive Twins.  His Secretary Graves, who by him was made a Deputy to one of the Lords Propriators (having a Wife in London) for several hears did live here in Adultery with a kind of a Mustee, who was his Bought Servant, by whom he hath had three Bastards, and with whom he hath lived, till (being deprived Justly of his Secretaries Place) he thought fit to go home to England, to seek for new preferment.  Mercier (another of the Lords Deputies) hath lived here, in a state of separation from his wife (who is said to be at New Yorke) 4 or 5 years; great part of which time, he hath lived in Adultery with a Nasty Punk, which he took as a Servant, by who he hath a Bastard living.  And these and such like, have been his peculiar Privado's and most inward Cabinet Councellers, by whom he hath carried on his Villanies, and supported himself therein hitherto."

To the Puritan mind, the items presented in this part of the letter would certainly be serious concerns.  Not sure of a number of terms used, but believe 1) "Punch Houses" is where a drink composed of water sweetened with sugar, with a mixture of lemon juices and spirit was served, and 2) "Mustee" as used in the West Indies, was a person of a mixed breed.  [Definitions from Noah Webster's 1828 Dictionary.]

Sunday, July 16, 2017

CJ (#59) A Second Letter 1692 (9)

The letter continues:

"By what hath been rehearsed, your Honour may perceive, how he consumes the publick Stock, that should be Improved for publick Defence; and thereby we are laid open and naked to the Common Enemy; from whose Invasion, our preservation (next to Divine protection) is to be Attributed to our poverty; we not being thought worth making an attempt upon : And whereas in regard we are so unfortified it is highly necessary that on small strength should be United and Composed, as much as may be; yet contrary to all rules of prudence, policy, and self preservation, and the frequent Advice of the Wisest among us, he suffers about a 120 Men to live soattering about, among the adjacent Islands; and not only suffers them so live after that manner, that the Government hath no benefit of them, nor they of the Government, but he strenously Opposeth their coming heither; and at the Salt Seafort, permits all the people (in like manner) to defect this Island to go the Salt Ponds, whereby we are exposed to be an Easiy Prey to the Common Enemy: And as if he design'd to Betray us into their Hands, he takes none (or very little) care for Amunition; so that many times, we have not enough to furnish the people, with six Rounds for small Arms, and less for the great Guns, of which there are but three at present useful; and tho we are generally so bare he either given or sould Gun Powder out of the Countries Stock, to Privateers; and sent away one of the great Guns in a Bark, which (by base and unworthy means) he hath gotten part of."

On the 1st of November 1670, all the Bahama Islands were granted to Lords Proprietors: 1) Christopher Duke of Albermarle, 2) William Earl of Craven, 3) John Lord Berkley, 4) Anthony Lord Ashley, 5) Sir George Carteret, and 6) Sir Peter Colleton.  Prior to this date, the earliest settlements were made by Puritan folks called the Eleutherians. [Eleutherian Adventures]  Governor's Bay, on the Island still called Eleuthera was their chief settlement area.  Salt Kettle Bay near Ridley's Head and two salt pond areas located southward from here, were most likely the areas referred to above.  Cadwallader Jones (JO-1) came to the Islands under the Lords Proprietors, and Thomas Bulkley (BUL-1) represented the Puritan settlements.  This was the soup that both found themselves swimming in 1692.

Previous posts have given some of this political and religious context. 

Friday, June 16, 2017

CJ (#59) A Second Letter 1692 (8)

By now you've got to be thinking...say what...does this guy Thomas Bulkley and friends not have anything better to do except for writing letters?   Anyway, this letter continues:

"I have also sent you a Coppy of the Lords Proprietors Instructions that you may see how his Actions do square with their Rules, but that Parliament last mentioned, Frustrate of the good Designs and Desires of the Petitioners: the Country was left Groaning under the Languishing Distempers, which his Evil Government had brought it into, and so hath continu'd Growing worse and worse.  By the first Parliament, 'twas Enacted, That Coll. Bowen Clasen, should be Joyned with the Governour in the Treasurers Office; and that no Money belonging to the Public Treasure should be Expended, without the Joynt consent of the Treasurers; and that their Account should be Audited every three Months.  Notwithstanding which Law, he hath taken upon him to demand and receive, all the publick Treasure from time, to time, not acquainting Coll. Bowen therewith; and as he receives, so he dispurses according to his own pleasure; and his Accounts not submitted to an Audit since last July was a year; which is about Seventeen Months: And tho we have had but small occasion of publick Expeences, since the last Tax was Granted, and he having received in Powder Money and Fort Money 121l , as by Entries in the Book will appear: Yet he saith, that the Country is indebted to him Considerably; and as it fares with the Countries Treasure, so with the Lords Royalties, as we have good reson to Suspect.  We cannot make a just Computation thereof, but guess upwards of 50 l for fifths of Ambergrease: He hath so managed the publick Treasure, that he expects (if a General Assembly do it) he shall be turned out of that Office; therefore he is a much appalled at the mention of a Parliament, and the coming of a new Governour, as Felix was, when St. Paul reasoned with him, Of Judgment to come. Through the perswasion of Mr. Clark (when here) he was prevailed upon, tho with great Reluctancy, to call a General Assembly, which was to sit the 8th of August last, but was by him (out of a perverse humour) Prorogu'd till the 15th of the said Month; After we had sate a few days (which were spent in frivolous Disputes raised by himself (as we have reason to think) on purpose to waste time, and interrupt business of Importance, which before we could fix upon, we were unhappily diverted, by some French Privateers, by whom we were in great danger of being taken and Plunder'd; and they lay so long just at our doors, that being tyred with continual watching night and day; and our Planting the mean while neglected: For general case, the Parliament Adjourn'd to the 5th of this Month, at which time they were Adjourn'd to the 7th Ditto, then (by him) were Disolved, having passed but two Acts, one for Appointing the Court of Pleas, the other for punishing Idle persons."

Tuesday, May 16, 2017

CJ (#59) A Second Letter 1692 (7)

The forth "IV." section of the letter continues:

"I have also sent you a Petition, which was prepared to be presented to him, for the Summoning and Sitting of a General Assembly, which when he heard of, and the names of some of the Subscrivers, he call'd them before him, and told them, by setting their names to that Petition, they were guilty of Treason, and had Forfelted their Lives, and and Estates; and he might take away both at his pleasure.  Some time after which, some of the most Considerable Inhabitants, as to Understanding, Ability, and Sobriety, with the Assistance of some others, did Seize upon, and Refrain his Person, for a very short time, to reduce him, to more Reasonable proceedings.  To which end we did make, and propose to him, some few and very mild Conditions of Peace, and Reconciliation which he then Accepted: whereupon he was restored, with Universal Expressions of Love, and Respect; at which time he did publicky Acknowledge his Errors, and with this Apology, ( we are all Sinners and that he was an Old Souldier, but a Young Governour), and promised, That he would for the Future, do nothing of a publick Nature, without Advice:  And for Uniting of all persons, and removing all Enmity, Malice, and Suspition, he would speedly Summon a Parliament, and have General Act of Oblivion , prepared and passed.  Soon after, a Parliament was call'd; but at the time of the Election, by himself, and some of his Creatures, he so over rul'd the Election, that he had a Parliament pack'd to his mind, which were absolutely Obsequious to his Dictates.  The first thing offered in the said Parliament was a Bill for an Act of Oblivion, to which, tho in the upper House he seem'd inclinable; yet he had Engag'd a party in both Houses to oppose it: and so the intended Act, and the Parliament too, both came to nothing, only spent about sixteen days in Wrangling, about the said Bill; which I have sent your Honour' according to your desire."

The letter continues in a very lengthy continuation of the conflict between the different parties.  This will be posted as written in small  segments in order to keep the readings manageable.

Friday, April 28, 2017

CJ (#59) A Second Letter 1692 (6)

The forth issue:

"IV.  He gets a French Vessel, in which a parcel of Privateers had been Roveing and playing the Pirates, some parts whereof, he purchased of the Company (as was said) and most given him by the Company, yet (out of a Bravado) he gives out that she was taken by his Son, (being Captain of the Ship Jones came in from England ) as a Lawful Prize of War : So he erects a Court of Admiralty, for Tryal, and Condemnation of the said Ship, which being done, he Exposes her to Sale by Inch of Candle; and useth effectual means that she might not be bought out of their Hands ; so according to their design and desire, she was bought at a low rate, being 42l whereas she was wellworth 500l.  So that this Lumping peniworth might be their own, Two Thirds of the said Vessel, (as belonging to the Lord Proprietors and himself) was sold to his Son, and One Third he allowed him as a Reward for his Valour in taking her.  So the Lords are Robb'd off with 14l for their Interest in the said Vessel, whereof his said Son he made Commander.  I should proceed, but I find that such a Progresive Narrative, would Ingross too much time, and swell too big to be contained in a Letter.  I shall therefore send you some Papers, which (tho defective) will in some measure inable you to make a Judgment of him and his course and Actions.  The Papers I have sent you, are the 1st  2d. and 3d. Speeches of our King Solomon, (to his first Parliament) for to him, he hath Presumptuously compared himself, in all things (Riches excepted) wherein his great Wisdom, Piety, Eloquence, and Strength of Reasoning, doth Iminenty appear : You will also see how hansomly he Princes it, and how much he is of a Statesman, by his Skilfullness in reading Faces.  Your Honour will also see how earnest he is for Money, that he may resemble Soloman in Riches too; and by his Powerful Eloquence, Larded with a Hypocritical shew of Piety, he obtained a Second Tax of one Shilling a week for Thirteen weeks, to be Levied on every Inhabitant in the Government, and their working Servants and Slaves, and this pretended for carrying on the work of the Lord begun, that is the building and finishing the new Fort, on which, we do not know that one stroke of work hath been done in the manner wherein it was begun.  That Parliament finding that the Peoples money was not well laid out, made a Law, That whatsoever should be further done in the said Fort, should be by Advice of certain Persons nominted in the said Law ; but, rather than Act by Advice and Council, he chose to do nothing to the Fort, but get the money into his own Hands, raised for that end, by the Assembly.  But of late, of his own head (not only without, but against the Advice of the Council) he hath begun to Build a thing, more like a Cow-pen, than a Fort : whereon he hath spent much time, and (as we expect to find) much Money."

Lots of issue at play here.  Most significant for my own Jones tree climbing, this section of the letter clearly identifies that a "son" was present.  Prior to this document, most genealogist I read assumed that Cadwallader (JO-1) had no children.

Monday, March 27, 2017

CJ (#59) A Second Letter 1692 (5)

The third issue:

"III. He ordained himself to be Treasurer, and having so done, he presseth the Council to Levy a Tax on the people (who were then few and poor) for Building a new Fort, which if it had proceeded according to his projection, would have cost at least 1500l. Whereas there was at that time an Old Fort, which (tho gon to decay) with a small Charge would have been more Serviceable than the New one, which hath cost (as is supposed) about 100l. and is no Defence."

Taxes without representation.  This does not seem to credit our Cadwallader (JO-1) with his extensive military experience back in Virginia.  Much more to come.

Saturday, March 4, 2017

CJ (#59) A Second Letter 1692 (4)

The second issue:

"II. He takes upon him to Dispence with the Lords Proprietors Instructions, contain'd in the 4th. Paragraph thereof, wherein he is required to Summon a General Assembly, or Parliament, which he did not, (upon a false pretence.) but instead of a Parliament, he constituted a Council consisting of himself, three Deputies, and four others, Chosen by the People, as Representatives of them; with whose Advise and Consent he fell to making of Laws, to be of equall Authority and Force, with Acts of a General Assembly, till the 25th of December following, which was near six Months from the time of his Arrival."

The British Civil War had much to do with the form of government.  "Court party" -vs- "Patriot party", was the major conflict, with Parliament establishing itself 1646 - 1660.  The swing back to Monarchy 1660 was to change dramatically with the arrival of James II as a Catholic.  The Puritan majority in Parliament had established Protestant Rule only from the Throne of England, leaving to the exile of James II, 25 December 1688.  It was this very conflict that was active during the period that Cadwallader (JO-1) monarchist faced Thomas Bulkley (BUL-1) Puritan.

A good reference is : English Politics In Early Virginia History, by Alexander Brown, The Riverside Press, Cambridge, 1901.

Thursday, February 23, 2017

CJ (#59) A Second Letter 1692 (3)

The second letter continues beginning "...his many Irregularities in Government" :

"I.  He presumed to Refuse taking the Oaths of Alleglance and Supremacy to their Majesties King William and Queen Mary, having (as may without breath of Charity be supposed some hopes of a Change of the seen in England, by King James's Remounting the Throne again."

As discussed in previous post, this historic period placed many against one another based upon their religious beliefs.  Cadwallader (JO-1) was appointed governor under James II [Catholic] 1689, just as the religious turmoil in England was coming to a head.   James II was to flee to France, December 1689, and the refusal to take the Oath was based upon the hope that James II would return to the thrown.

A large number of events were occurring in Scotland, Ireland, and France which have been discussed in "Our First Revolution, The Remarkable British Upheaval That Inspired America's Founding Fathers", by Michael Barone, Crown Publishers, NY., 2007]  It is called "The Glorious Revolution" in English history books.  So, from the very beginning of Cadwallader's (JO-1) arrival to the Bahamas, the Puritan settlement [under Thomas Bulkley (BUL-1)] was in direct conflict with the political and religious system that had appointed Cadwallader (JO-1) as governor.

This figure has been discussed before in several prior posts trying to show the opposing belief systems.



The list will be continued.

Friday, February 3, 2017

CJ (# 59) A Second Letter 1692 (2)

The second letter continues:

"Sir, As we said before, the case of our Complaints is not Personal Affronts and Injuries (which have been many and great) but for them we would not (at least by letter) have troubled your Honour with our Complaints, but of as general a Nature as before said, viz The grand Charge we have against him, is great in itself, and great in respect of the many great ones contain'd in it : The general is that from the first of his coming hither, He hath managed a wicked design to set up Arbitrary and Tyrannical Government, not bounded not regulated by Laws, but such as would be the Dictates of his own will, for serving the Corrupt Interests and Lusts of himself, and his Lewd and Beggerly Favourites ; who were designed to Repair their decay'd Fortunes (became so by their own Vicious and Extravagant Courses)  by Subjecting the People in their Bodies and Parts to their absolute Dominion and Avarice. The withstanding of which Designs, first in a regular and Parliamentary way, and when that proved ineffectual, we were constrained (being at so great a distance from the Lords Proprietors) to the Extraordinary means to bring him to some better terms, which were Reasonable, Just, and Mild : To which, tho he then Conceded, and made many fair promises, yet in a little time (after the Muzle was was off ) he began to Act like a Beast of Prey again ; and so hath continued to do, to this present time..."

Here beings a long list of complaints continued in this letter.   I will begin this list next post.  Hum...can't wait.

Tuesday, January 17, 2017

CJ (#59) A Second Letter 1692 (1)


"A Second Letter to the said Collonel Phillip Ludwell, Governour of Carolina, being a Replication to his Answer to the first, to him Written, by the said Ashley (AS-1), Clasen (CLA-1), and Bukeley (BUL-1)."

"Right Honourable,

The 24th of the last Month (by Mr. Ireland (IR-1) we received yours, Dated the 27th of October, where in your Honour abounds in Expressions of Kindness and Condescention to us; and a compassionate Resentment of our Divisions and Discords, and the evil tendency thereof ; As also declaring your readiness to Engage your self to Promote and Accomplish a Reconciliation between us, in hopes whereof you express your self willing to undertake a Voyage hither ; for which Favours we want words to express our Humble gratitude.  By yours we are inform'd, your Honour hath received ours of the 16th of July, in which (as your Honour speaks) some things to a stranger may seem too passonate : But truly Sir, they do but seem so, for to any other then a stranger, we might say as David to his brother Eleabs is there not a Cause, and that not Personal or Private, but Publick and General, where is no less than the whole Interest of the Lords Proprietors, safety, and Tranquility of the people Inhabiting these their Lordships Territories is involved.  Your Honour saith that you have known our Governour several Years, and that he hath always past for a person of a Generous and good Nature, if he did, it was only as Counterfit Come, till it is discovered; or else he is strangely Debased ; For now, there does not appear in him one mark of true Generosity, nor so much as the Reliques thereof, but a Degenerate Ignoble Spirit, almost daily discover it self, in Speeches and Action Similar; whereof numerous Instances might be given.  You say you have received Complaints from his also, but neither he nor we have given the particulars of each other's Grievances."

Just the beginning it is...a very long letter continues...next post.